Euro Surveill. Acute flaccid paralysis AFP surveillance is key for global polio eradication. It allows detecting poliovirus PV reintroductions from endemic countries. This study describes AFP surveillance in Spain from to The mean notification rate was 0. No poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, although two Sabin-like PVs and one imported vaccine-derived PV-2 were detected.
Overall, 23 3. The adequate stool collection rate ranged from The annual proportion of AFP cases with non-polio enterovirus findings varied widely across the study period. AFP surveillance with laboratory testing for non-polio enteroviruses must be maintained and enhanced both to monitor polio eradication and to establish sensitive surveillance for prompt detection of other enteroviruses causing serious symptoms.
Surveillance and outbreak report Open Access. Like 0. Josefa Masa-Calles jmasa isciii. View Citation Hide Citation. Abstract Acute flaccid paralysis AFP surveillance is key for global polio eradication. Article metrics loading From This Site. Download as PowerPoint Full text loading Acute flaccid paralysis AFP surveillance: the surveillance strategy for poliomyelitis eradication.
Weekly Epidemiological Record. Geneva: WHO; Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses--worldwide, January June PMID: Pallansch MA. N Engl J Med. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Spain: Government of Spain; Polio Laboratory Manual, 4th edition.
Recommended Travel Vaccinations for Spain
Travel Insurance for Spain works the same as in most of the world. Check the steps listed below, to understand how it practical works:. Costs for Travel Insurance for Spain depend mostly on the company that is offering insurance. The prices depend from one company to another. That is why you should check several ones until you decide which you want to purchase. Usually, the more services they offer, the more expensive they are. Also the longer your trip, the more money you will have to pay for your Spain travel insurance.
Still, many providers have categories of persons who can get travel insurance for Spain for reduced prices, i.
Meaning of "poliomielitis" in the Spanish dictionary
Check if you belong to such a category. Moreover, if you choose a lower overall maximum coverage limit, you will obviously have to pay less. Often, Spain and a few other countries in Europe are excluded from some travel insurance providers. This happens because health incidents are a bit more frequent in Spain. The high temperatures are one reason for that. Moreover, healthcare in Spain is quite more expensive than for other countries. As a result, health insurance for Spain tends to be a bit more expensive than for other EU countries, i.
France or Germany. It has a state healthcare system with the option for additional private coverage. There are hospitals in the whole territory of Spain, and another 21, pharmacies. Thus, you always have a good chance to find one close to you, in case of need. You will be able to access medical care for free, or for a very low price. All those traveling to Spain should be vaccinated against measles, and have the routine vaccines, which include measles-mumps-rubella MMR vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, varicella chickenpox vaccine, polio vaccine, and your yearly flu shot.
Travelers from some specific countries are required to be vaccinated against some infections and illnesses as Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and rabies.
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Yet, you should be very cautious not to catch an infection or get poisoned. Though Spanish inspection authorities check restaurants, farms, factories, shops and street sellers rigorously, it is always thoughtful to be careful. If you find yourself in an emergency while in Spain, call right away for an ambulance or police. Foreign citizens are treated with respect and served with the necessary medical care in case of an emergency.
We also suggest you to check where is the closest pharmacy and hospital to the place you will be staying while in Spain.
Keep their contact number and address with you anywhere you go. Your main concern about Spain travel risks should be theft. In particular, if you are traveling to Madrid or Barcelona.
Pickpocketing is very common around here, due to the high number of tourists. Always keep your phone keys and wallet close to you. Be careful of people approaching you with maps, and asking you for directions. Do not handle your phone to someone to take pictures of you. You may not get that phone back. Keeps your bags zipped, and always watch for it. If you are staying at a hostel, some other cheap hotel, breakfast and bed, or a guesthouse, always lock your luggage. Other than theft, you should not be worried about anything else related to travel risks in Spain.
There have been very few terrorist attacks in the last 20 years in Spain. Moreover, the Spanish Interior Ministry has released new counter-terrorism strategies, fighting attacks and mass shootings. Aside from the declaration of Catalonia independence in , which caused protests, there have been no civil unrests in the past years in Spain. Biking is very popular in Spain.
- Marist Study Abroad program in Spain, Madrid - Marist College.
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You might want to rent one while you are there, so you do not need to take the bus continuously within a city.